Die Casting Parts Review

Pinless tag clip- zinc die casting parts

  • Zinc: ZA-8
  • Weight: 0.35 oz
  • Miniature  zinc
  • 100,000 parts in 4 weeks

Power conditioning module chases – aluminum die casting parts

  • Aluminum: 380
  • Weight: 2..3lbs
  • ̴12”ꭗ12” (30ꭗ30 cm)
  • Die built in 8 weeks
  • Replace machined component
  • Significant cost savings

Steering knuckles


  • Passed 1.4g cornering load at 130,000 min and 280,000 cycle’s max (4 to 8ꭗ req.)
  • UTS > 2ꭗ customer requirements in all tests
  • Lower control arm test: unbreakable (fixture failure)
  • Outperformed all previous AI knuckles
  • 10% weight reduction
  • 5% cost reduction

Thrust rods


  • ̴50% weight reduction
  • Ribs allowed stiffness needed
  • Three parts consolidated into one
  • Replaced stamped steel parts

Engine base bracket


  • 43.6% weight reduction over stamped steel fabrication
  • Met strength and ductility requirements
  • 16 parts to 1
  • 4 different brackets now one common bracket
  • Cost reduction confidential per customer
  • Up to 1M per year

Engine subframe


  • Welded to hydro/bulge formed and squeeze cast parts
  • 46% weld length reduction  ̴40% lighter
  • Down to 16 parts from 48 (66% less)
  • Cost reduction realized, but confidential

Shock tower


  • 40% weight savings
  • Eliminated 5 part steel assembly
  • Exceeded requirements
  • Elongation allowed self-piercing riveting
  • Allowed thin wall heat treatment

Porosity – background

  • Common in many die castings
  • Common in metal casting
  • All defects are characteristics of the process
  • Considered a defect when porosity level exceed requirements


  • Sources of casting defects
  • Process control of defects
  • Design control of defects
  • Measuring defects

The cause of defects


  • Two sources of porosity
  • Solidification
  • Gas (various sources)
  • Smooth pores formed at high liquid fractions
  • Jagged pores formed at a lower liquid fraction
  • Many aluminum alloys shrink  ̴6%
  • Common casting pore fraction < 3%

Shrinkage porosity – summary

  • Shrinkage can account for all the porosity
  • To reduce shrinkage porosity
  • Feeding, feeding, feeding
  • Bigger gates
  • High pressure
  • Etc
  • Alloy design
  • Interacts with gas porosity

Dissolved gas porosity

Three major causes of gas

  • Hydrogen gas
  • Entrained air
  • Evaporation of lubes, water, etc…

cannot be separated from shrinkage easily

gas will fill shrinkage pores

Hydrogen porosity

hydrogen solubility

  • high in liquid
  • low in solid

during solidification

  • hydrogen gas rejection
  • forms porosity


  • microspores
  • combine with larger pores

Entrained air porosity

air caught during filling

  • in short sleeve
  • during injection
  • poor venting

difficult to predict quantitatively

process variables and design affects air entrainment

The vacuum can be effective

Other gas porosity

typical other sources of porosity include:

  • die lube
  • plunger tip lube
  • water
  • hydraulic oil/heating oil leaks

color of porosity can help identify sources

  • dark = lubes
  • light/shiny = water

Reduce leaking

  • impregnation
  • reduce porosity
  • avoid removing skin
  • avoid soldering
  • move knit lines


  • process control
  • gating
  • design

Design for Die casting manufacturing

Design guideline

  • Similar to injection moulding. Consider die casting when the inserted part does not have sufficient strength.
  • Wall thickness function of alloy (typ 1.0 – 3mm). can go up to 10mm (will be permeable –a power not proportional to the wall)
  • Ribs 80% wall thickness shrinkage less of an issue.
  • Cooling time proportional to wall thickness (injection is t^2), so can have faster cycle times and thicker walls.
  • Draft depends on alloy. Assume > 1.0 deg, esp. on cavity side.
  • Tolerance is a function of alloy, part geometry and dies construction.
  • Zinc alloy linear: + / − 0.025mm across up to 50mm.
  • Zinc alloy hole: + / − 0.015mm up to 25mm diameter.
  • need over flow wells and secondary ops − > $$
  • No internal slides or snap fits.

The die casting option: broad range

  • Agriculture machinery
  • Auto motive vehicle
  • Building hardware
  • Electrical and electronic equipment
  • Hand tools
  • Home appliances
  • Industrial product
  • Instrumentation
  • Lawn and garden equipment
  • Office furniture
  • Recreational equipment
  • Portable power tools

Cold chamber

  1. Advantages
  2. Large complex parts
  3. Higher pressure
  4. Many production layouts possible

Hot chamber Die casting

  1. Advantages
  2. Metal temperature control.
  3. Automatic refill
  4. No cooling
  5. Less oxidation

Types of dies

  • Single cavity die
  • Multiple cavity die
  • Family die
  • Unit die

Injection sizing

  • Critical variables
  • Hydraulic pressure
  • Cylinder size
  • Dry shot speed
  • Gate area
  • Part volume
  • Fill rate

Clamping tonnage

  • Projected area of shot X metal pressure
  • Metal pressure   ͏͏͏͏̴ 10,000 psi (70 MPa)
  • Example
  • 100 ꭗ 10000/2000=500t (450mt) of clamping force required

Other process design concerns

  • Filling pattern and plunger speed profile
  • Venting and vacuum
  • Thermal control
  • Dimensional control

Thixocasting (semi – solid)

  • Most casting processes use a fully liquid feed material
  • Semi – solid casting uses as feed material that is 50% liquid and 50% solid

Semi – solid metal casting


  • Viscous  flow (less air trapped)
  • Shorter cycle time (colder material)
  • Increased tool life (less shock)
  • Reduced shrinkage (narrower cooling range)
  • Reduced porosity (directional solidification)
  • Improved mechanical properties

Example part

  • Turbocharger impeller

Squeeze casting

  • Fully liquid feel metal
  • Inject slowly
  • Avoid turbulence associated with conventional de casting


  • Horizontal (HSC)
  • Horizontal vertical (HVSC)
  • Vertical (VSC)

Squeeze casting

  • Process specific advantages
  • Non – turbulent flow
  • Reduced porosity (directional solidification)
  • Improved mechanical properties
  • Process specific disadvantages
  • Casting wall thickness Min 4 to 5mm (0.150 to 0.200”)
  • Large gates 6mm to 38mm (0.25 to 1.5”)
  • Large runners
  • Directional solidification (gate location)
  • Limited cavity number (orientation in die, pressure opening die)

High integrity die casting processes

Vacuum Die casting

  • Fully liquid feed
  • Fast fill
  • Vacuum level in the die cavity of 100 millibar or less
  • Eliminates cavity gasses from the shot sleeve and die
  • Used for crash resistant automotive castings

Aluminum Die Casting: Get Feeling And Quality With Die Casting

Die casting has become increasingly important in industries where precision is a concern. While providing customers with complete products, this process has become a major option for users. The arrival of large manufacturing and industrial units has improved productivity and performance. This method is used to shape and produce the product with the perfect finish. Generally made of non-ferrous metals, such as zinc, tin, aluminum, copper, magnesium, and lead-based alloys, it is characterized by the coercion of molten metal under high pressure in the mold cavity. They are relatively simple processes and reduce high costs. Suitable for large amounts of medium-sized cast iron, they retain dimensional consistency.

Aluminum Die Casting provides durable and stable parts. Despite providing a complex form of industrial parts in narrower tolerances, it eliminates or reduces secondary machining operations. Diecast parts have greater resistance to extreme temperatures. Regarded as one of the quickest and most cost-effective methods for generating various components, it has become the most recommended force in the metallurgical industry. Indispensable for many manufacturing industries such as hardware, electronics, automotive, and much more. It provides efficient, zinc, precise aluminum, and magnesium alloy components, with good mechanical properties and appeals to consumers.

Die Casting focuses attention on the application of scientific knowledge at its factory. This integrated process is essential for the manufacture of technical products that guarantee long-term benefits. This results in pieces with thinner walls with narrower dimensional borders and a smoother surface. With the advent of the automotive industry and the increase of trade, demand for mold parts has increased rapidly. This process can be done using hot or cold room. Zinc smelting is considered as the most efficient way to incorporate precision with the physical and extraordinary nature of zinc. With alu die casting, it is easy to use the careful components in large quantities and at low cost.

With constant quality in large volumes, ensure long mould life. Tested and certified by professionals, castings mark their excellence in all areas. If you are looking for these items, you can always use the online store or use their services through other sources. But before going, make sure you have the best knowledge and best advice to meet your specific needs.

Hopefully, this guide can be useful for you. Thank you for reading the article about aluminum die casting.